Cells with learning


“To Gelber, the experiments demonstrated that Paramecium was learning to associate the wire with food, a conclusion that challenged scientists’ belief that only highly evolved, multicellular animals with central nervous systems were capable of such behavio. More fundamentally, her results suggested that at least some of the biological machinery needed for learning and other cognitive processes might exist not in the connections among neurons in an animal brain, but within individual cells themselvesr”

Previously on this site “Neurons with memory”https://1500poundgoat.com/2021/04/21/neurons-with-memory/”

I see a pattern here, at least MR Tyler Cowen getting interested in alternative explanations to neurons connecting, I found both links on his website

Neurons with memory

here says an experiment wtih ferrets show that memories are probably stored directly in the neuron, interview with Randy Gallistel who stresses that it would be a paradigm change for neuroscience and also #ai both assuming that memories are the effect of connection between neurons

“The most interesting idea” the idea would be revolutionary, the experiment, if recognised and reproduced, could be an anomaly that neuroscience has to face and accomodate in current theory https://join.substack.com/p/is-this-the-most-interesting-idea

GPT-3 links

and some renewed interest in Transformers

Gwern https://www.gwern.net/newsletter/2020/05#gpt-3

HN comments where iI found the link https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=23623845

some intuition on relation between Graph and Transformer architecture https://graphdeeplearning.github.io/post/transformers-are-gnns/

I should find a good intro to transformer, it seems that they scale the right way, even bigger models with ever better performances, like size drives performance.

UPDATE 24 may 2021: Are we in an AI overhang?

Viagra for growth

il Sildenafil è il Viagra, il Taldafil è il Cialis, il Vardenafil è il #meToo col brand meno forte, non ricordo quale

Ash Jogalekar@curiouswavefn chiede “Show me a molecular modeling or machine learning technique that predicts tadalafil (Cialis) from sildenafil (Viagra) without the former being explicitly represented in the training set, purely based on target information. That’s the kind of scaffold hop that will turn heads. “

la biochimica non è tutta così prevedibile, però la performance di Alphafold nel torneo di piegatura delle proteine ha lasciato una grande impressione

Già da un pò si pensa che iniettando un po di tech (leggi software e ML) nella ricerca pharma si può girare la #eroomLaw in #MooreLaw se non ci credete passate da A16z che ha cominciato a usare il termine Bio come buzzword analoga a Tech, tech non è più una abbrevizione di tecnologia, come Bio vuole essere una etichetta breve e riconoscibile di una tesi di investimento nel bioscience https://a16z.com/bio/

Solo che l’eccitazione del successo di Alphafold adesso fa pensare a qualcuno che anche la Great Stagnation possa essere giunta al termine, insomma Alphafold è viagra per gli economisti

Se lo chiede Tyler Cowen che il termine l’ha coniato nel suolibro del 2011. E un po di tech optimism si vede qua e là

2 letture per il giorno di festa, distopia e golpe

Noah Smith propone una distopia, plausibile ma secondo lui non la più probabile. Al centro sempre la Cina con il mix di autoritarianismo e tecnologia, il partito che si arma di intelligenza artificiale per controllare ogni piccolo evento della vita dei cinesi, allenando tutto sulla oppressione degli Uiguri https://noahpinion.substack.com/p/the-super-scary-theory-of-the-21st

Zeynep Tufekci sociologa USA di origine turca, lamenta che laddove in Turchia ci sono diversi termini per descrivere ogni tipo di golpe, in USA ne hanno uno solo e non riescono a cogliere in pieno il rischio del ridicolo comportamento di Trump dopo le elezioni, che giunge dopo anni di occupazione e imbastardimento della politica americana, gerrymandering etc.

Anche Napoleone III era un pagliaccio che fu portato al potere proprio per essere una macchietta, salvo poi prenderselo e farsi imperatore , per lui Marx disse “Hegel says somewhere that that great historic facts and personages recur twice. He forgot to add: “Once as tragedy, and again as farce.” https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/12/trumps-farcical-inept-and-deadly-serious-coup-attempt/617309/

of Biochemistry and Geometry

some Nobel prize was awarded 50 years ago to someone who claimed a protein’s shape could be derived from the atoms building it, so it started a rece at guessing how a protein would fold, folding proteins in short. It came to artificial intelligence news this week, Alpha Fold of Deepmin won some protein-folding olympics https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03348-4

Twitter reminds me how important and difficult to deal with, is atom’s position in a molecule, detrmining properties https://twitter.com/curiouswavefn/status/1334562488495423489

while reading PIHKAL di Shulgin you can find a chapter named the 4-posiyion where it shows how halucinogenic potency derives from molecules taking the 4- position in a benzene circlae and stay there while in our body

Orthogonality, USA elections and AI

in my usa bubble on twitter, mostly founders and founder phylosophers, Robin Hanson is makeng rounds with his pos that advises To Oppose Polarization, Tug Sideways

Americans a re under shock after 2 boomers, worse, 2 silent generationers 1942 and 1946 babled at each other wthou much sense for 1 hour. Politics is a multidimensional tug-of-war and in certain cases it is better mind your own fight and tug sideways

orthogonality is a condition thay ensures that AIs need not obliterate us humans https://arbital.com/p/orthogonality/ found on the twitter of

fonder of the rationalisic community lesswrong and this nice arbital site with lots of tutorials

the purpose of adovcting otrhogonality is different

to Hanson when politics gets fsctituois better go orthogonal

AIs in Moravec dialogue with … think of him as too factitious and cannot bother more with the real 4-dim world, thay have gone their own multidimensional way

here we come at orthogonality is Y meaning, AIs neednot get confrontational with us, there’s plenty of orthonogal room 🙂

il giorno delle parole @@@morfiche

“I clarify: that was truth, not humor. The GPT setup is precisely isomorphic to training a (huge) neural net to compress online text to ever-smaller strings, then using the trained net to decompress random bytes.”

isomorphic: mapping between 2 structures that preserver the structure and can be reversed.

” as organisms become more and more complex through evolution, they need to model reality with increasing accuracy to stay fit. At all times, their representation of reality must be homomorphic with reality itself. Or in other words, the true structure of our world must be preserved when converted into your brain’s representation of it.”

from here https://savsidorov.substack.com/p/tldr-the-interface-theory-of-perception

Homomorphism in Algebra is a structure-preserivng map between 2 algebric structures of the same type (not reversible like isomorphic?)

Brain links 16 sep 2020

Joscha Bach on GPT-3 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMfA6i60WDA GPT-3 moves in a semantic space, masters relations between words, but can only deepfake understading

Joshua built the MicroPSI architecture based on PSI Theory https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psi-theory#MicroPsi_architecture

Curious Wavefunction makes a history of information and thermodynamics http://wavefunction.fieldofscience.com/2020/07/brains-computation-and-thermodynamics.html

ends it with the idea that our brain is a mixture of digital and analog processes, as posited by Von Neumann

Sav Sidorov another Joscha Bach video with highlights https://savsidorov.substack.com/p/tldr-joscha-bach-artificial-consciousness

“Some people think that a simulation can’t be conscious, and only a physical system can, but they got it completely backwards. A physical system cannot be conscious, only a simulation could be conscious.”

Connection between information and entropy isn born: “When Shannon showed his result to the famous mathematician John von Neumann, von Neumann with his well-known lightning-fast ability to connect disparate ideas, immediately saw what it was: “You should call your function ‘entropy’”, he said, “firstly because that is what it looks like in thermodynamics, and secondly because nobody really knows what entropy is, so in a debate you will always have the upper hand.” Thus was born the connection between information and entropy.”